A solar version of Nepal Sambat began from N.S. 1141 Kachhala 1 which co-incided with 20 October 2020. Colloquially in Nepal Bhasa, it is called Nhilyaa kathan yaa nepal sambat [Prachalit Nepal Script: 𑐣𑑂𑐴𑐶𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅 𑐎𑐠𑑄𑐫𑐵 𑐣𑐾𑐥𑐵𑐮 𑐳𑐩𑑂𑐧𑐟, Devanagari script : न्हिल्याः कथंया नेपाल सम्बत] which means ‘Nepal Sambat in accordance to date system’.
The solar Nepal Sambat is based on earth’s revolution around sun. It has 365 days every year, and 366 on leap years.
There are twelve months in Nepal Sambat. They are as follows:-
|S.N.||Names of Month|
|Roman||Nepal Script||Nagari Script|
Days per month
The first five months Kachhalā, Thinlā, Ponhelā, Sillā and Chillā have 30 days per month. The sixth month Chaulā has 29 days every year and 30 days every leap year. The rest six months Bachhalā, Tachhalā, Dillā, Gunlā, Yanlā and Kaulā have 31 days per month.
The concept of leap year exists across various solar calendars. Since Nepal Sambat has 365 days a year, and the earth takes approximately 365.25 days to complete a revolution around the sun – we loose 0.25 days every year. This means the calendar slowly drifts away from the seasons and actual time. Therefore, to prevent this from happening, the concept of leap year exists.
On leap years, one day is added in the year to make it 366 days. The extra day added is the leap day and tansa din [Prachalit Nepal Script: 𑐟𑑃𑐳𑐵 𑐡𑐶𑑄, Devanagari script : तँसा दिं] in Nepal Bhasa. The sixth month Chaulā which has 29 days on regular years, will have one extra day – making it 30 days on leap years.
Leap years come approximately every four years. The exact maths to calculate leap year is as follows:
1. Add 880 to the given number of year
2. If the number is evenly divisible by 4 – Go to step number 2, otherwise it isn’t a leap year.
2. If the number is also evenly divisible by 100 – Go to step number 3, otherwise it is a leap year.
3. If the number is also evenly divisible by 400 – It is a leap year, otherwise not.
The leap years in Nepal Sambat for next hundred years are 1144, 1148, 1152, 1156, 1160, 1164, 1168, 1172, 1176, 1180, 1184, 1188, 1192, 1196, 1204, 1208, 1212, 1216, 1220, 1224, 1228, 1232, 1236, 1240.
Nepal Sambat dates are written in YYYY/MM/DD format.
Year – dan [Prachalit Nepal Script: 𑐡𑑃, Devanagari script : दँ]
Month – laa [Prachalit Nepal Script: 𑐮𑐵, Devanagari script : ला]
Date – nhilyaa [Prachalit Nepal Script: 𑐣𑑂𑐴𑐶𑐮𑑂𑐫𑐵𑑅, Devanagari script : न्हिल्याः]
N.S. is the abbreviation to denote ‘Nepal Sambat’.
A week consists of seven days. Weeks start from Sunday and end on Saturdays in Nepal. Week is called vaa [Prachalit Nepal Script: 𑐰𑐵𑑅, Devanagari script : वाः] and the days are called baa or baa [Prachalit Nepal Script: 𑐧𑐵𑐬 / 𑐧𑐵𑑅, Devanagari script : बार / बाः]
1. Ninhi – Sunday
2. Minhi – Monday
3. Inaanhi – Tuesday
4. Sunhi – Wednesday
5. Sinnhi – Thursday
6. Lunnhi – Friday
7. Sannhi – Saturday
The Solar New Year of Nepal Sambat falls on it’s first day Kachhala 1, which coincides with October 20 in Gregorian calendar.
Nepal Sambat itself began on 20 October 879 A.D., therefore 20 October 2020 was taken as a commencement point for the Solar Nepal Sambat 1141.
Century means ‘a hundred years’. It is called sadi [Prachalit Nepal Script: 𑐳𑐡𑐶, Devanagari script : सदि]. The term in Nepal Bhasa derives from sacchi dan deegu [Prachalit Nepal Script: 𑐳𑐔𑑂𑐕𑐶 𑐡𑑃 𑐡𑐶𑐂𑐐𑐸, Devanagari script : सच्छि दँ दिइगु] which means ‘when hundred years resides’.
Since Nepal Sambat started from the year one (N.S. 1) – a century is from one to hundred. In the year 1141, we are in the 12th century of Nepal Sambat. The 12th century began from N.S. 1101 and will end in the year N.S. 1200.
1st century : N.S. 1 to N.S. 100
2nd century : N.S. 101 to N.S. 200
3rd century: N.S. 201 to 300
4th century: N.S. 301 to 400
5th century: N.S. 401 to 500
6th century: N.S. 501 to 600
7th century: N.S. 601 to 700
8th century: N.S. 701 to 800
9th century: N.S. 801 to 900
10th century: N.S. 901 to 1000
11th century: N.S. 1001 to N.S. 1100
12th century: N.S. 1101 to N.S. 1200
As Nepal Sambat started the year N.S. 1, a decade goes from one to ten, eleven to twenty, twenty one to thirty, thirty one to fourty and so on. A decade is known as jhidi [Prachalit Nepal Script: 𑐗𑐶𑐡𑐶, Devanagari script : झिदि]. The term in Nepal Bhasa derives from jhi-dan deegu [Prachalit Nepal Script: 𑐗𑐶𑐡𑑃 𑐡𑐶𑐂𑐐𑐸, Devanagari script : झिदँ दिइगु] which means ‘when ten years resides’.
The decades of the first century:
1st decade: N.S. 1 to N.S. 10
2nd decade: N.S. 11 to N.S. 20
3rd decade: N.S. 21 to N.S. 30
4th decade: N.S. 31 to N.S. 40
5th decade: N.S. 41 to N.S. 50
6th decade: N.S. 51 to N.S. 60
7th decade: N.S. 61 to N.S. 70
8th decade: N.S. 71 to N.S. 80
9th decade: N.S. 81 to N.S. 90
10th decade N.S. 91 to N.S. 100
The decades of 12th century:
1st decade: N.S. 1101 to N.S. 1110
2nd decade: N.S. 1111 to N.S. 1120
3rd decade: N.S. 1121 to N.S. 1130
4th decade: N.S. 1131 to N.S. 1140
5th decade: N.S. 1141 to N.S. 1150
6th decade: N.S. 1151 to N.S. 1160
7th decade: N.S. 1161 to N.S. 1170
8th decade: N.S. 1171 to N.S. 1180
9th decade: N.S. 1181 to N.S. 1190
10th decade N.S. 1191 to N.S. 1200
Before Nepal Sambat
The year before Nepal Sambat 1 goes with backward counting. It is resembled as B.N.S.